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اسم المستخدم

كلمة المرور

إنشاء بريد إلكتروني

 
     
 
قسم العقاقير الطبيعية - المنهج الدراسي
 

Pharmaceutical Botany

Aim

To prepare the students for the pharmacognosy and natural product chemistry course

4.1.2.Objectives

     By the end of this course, the students will understand :

1.     The principles of plant classification and the major classes of plant kingdom.

2.     The differences between the plant and animal cells

3.     The plant morphology and plant anatomy of each  plant organs.

4.      The  general plant physiology

4.1.3. Course content

4.1.3.1. Theory                                                                       

1- Plant nomenclature and taxonomy:      

·        Introduction and principles of plant taxonomy

·        plant and animal kingdom as source of drugs [Biological and geographical source of drugs, plant kingdom classification]

2- The Cell:                    

·        The cell structure

·        Plant cell, tissue and system

·        The characters of living cell

·        The different between plant and animal cell

3- Plant Morphology:       

·        Introduction

·        The general macroscopic feature of the different plant organs: (seed, fruit, flower, leaves, stem, buds, branch, and root)

4- Plant anatomy:           

·        Introduction

·        The general  microscopic feature of the different plant organs: (seed, fruit, flower, leaves, stem, buds, branch, and root)

5- Plant physiology:

·        Introduction to plant physiology

·        Plant-water relationship [permeability, diffusion, osmosis, imbibitions, absorption]

·        Photosynthesis. Minerals and nutrition.

·        Growth and reproduction

4.1.3.2. Practical

 l.         Morphology of each plant parts.

2          Care, use and type of microscopes.

3.       Gross identification of slides of structure and life cycle of lower plants mentioned in theory.

5.       preparation, microscopic examination of stem, root, flower, seed, fruit and leaf of monocot and dicot plants

4.2. Pharmacognosy                   

Course Code:                                                              Semester II

4.2.1. Aim :

  To introduce the students to the world of natural drugs.

4.2.2. Objectives

By the end of this course students will be :

·         Able to describe the biological source, cultivation, collection, preparation an active constituent and uses of natural drugs.

·        Able to grasp the concepts of the past, present and future role of natural drugs in pharmacy

·        Familiar with different sources of natural drugs.

4.2.3. Course Contents:

4.2.3.1. Theory

1- Introduction to pharmacognocy       

·        definition

·        herbal medicine

·        needs and discovery of drugs

·        drug source classification

2- Organized drugs              

·        Introduction and definition

·        The study of the different organs include:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, substitute and adulteration]. these organs include:[ seed, fruits, flowers, leaves, wood, bark, root and rhizomes]

3- Unorganized drugs         

·        Introduction and definition

·        Biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, substitute and adulteration]. these organs include:[ gum,  latex , mucilage,... etc]

4- Entire Organism       

·        Introduction and definition

·        Examples [Biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, substitute and adulteration].

5- Hair and fibers           

·        Introduction and definition

·        Biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, substitute and adulteration].

6- Starch                         

·        Introduction

·        physical and chemical properties

·        Examples [Biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, preparation, chemical constituents, medicinal uses, substitute and adulteration].

7- Other topics               week 15

4.2.3.2. Practical

1.         Morphological characteristics of plant families mentioned in theory.

2.       Microscopic measurements of cells and Cell contents: Starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibres.

3.       Determination of leaf constants such as stomatal index, stomatal number, vein- islet number, vein-termination number and palisade ratio.

4.         Identification of crude metabolites in each plant organs ( as fresh plant material or plant powder)  using chemical reagents.

5.         Preparation of herbarium sheets.

4.3. Chromatography                   

Course Code:                                               Semester III        

4.3.1. Aim :

       To  introduce the student to various aspects of extraction, isolation and identification of natural drugs.

4.3.2. Objectives

   By the end of this course, the students will understand :

1.     The extraction methods

2.     The principles of chromatography

3.     The classic chromatographic methods.

4.     the advance chromatographic methods.

4.3.3. Course contents:

4.3.3.1. Theory

1- Extraction:                             

·        Introduction to extraction

·        Extraction methods [ maceration, soxhlet, expression, distillation, decoction, percolation, SCF, CCE, ... etc]

2- Chromatography                   

·        Introduction

·        Theory of chromatography

·        The classification of chromatography

·        Chromatographical methods [ paper chromatography, thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas chromatography, HPLC, and others]

·        application of chromatography

4.3.3.2. Practical

1.         Determination of yeild % of crude extract by using different extraction methods mentioned in theory.

2.         Study of different types of chromatgraphy.

4.4. Phytochemistry I                  

Course Code:                                                          Semester IV

4.4.1. Aim :

    To introduce the students to the world of natural drugs.

4.4.2. Objectives :

By the end of this course, the students will understand :

1.     phytochemistry

2.     The principles The definition of metabolism

3.     The primary metabolites.

4.     The secondary metabolites

4.4.3.Course Content

4.4.3.1. Theory

1- Introduction to phytochemistry       

·        Introduction and general methods

·        methods of investigation in biogenic studies

·        The basic metabolic pathways and the origin of secondary metabolites

2- Hydrocarbons and derivatives   

1- Carbohydrate              

·        Introduction and definition, classification, biogenesis

·        Extraction , isolation, and identification

·        Examples:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

2- proteins                     

·        Introduction and definition, classification, biogenesis

·        Extraction , isolation, and identification

·        Examples:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

3- Lipids                    

·        Introduction and definition, classification, biogenesis

·        Extraction , isolation, and identification

·        Examples:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

4- Resins                   

·        Introduction and definition, classification, biogenesis

·        Extraction , isolation, and identification

·        Examples:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

5- Other topics       

4.4.3.2. Practical

1-      Qualitative studies of different Phytochemical groups studied.

2-      Quantitative of different Phytochemical groups studied.

3-      determination of the studied metabolites from natural sources.

 

4.5. Phytochemistry II                  

Course Code: -----            Semester V &VI

5.4.1. Aim :

       To  introduce the student to various aspects of extraction, isolation and identification of some phytochemical groups.

5.4.2. Objectives :

       By the end of this course, the students will understand :

1.     The extraction methods of different phytochemical groups

2.     The physiochemical properties of secondary metabolites

3.     the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites.

4.     the therapeutic activities of the secondary metabolites.

5.4.3. Course contents:

5.4.3.1. Theory

1-Terpenoids              

·        Introduction

·        Biogenesis

·        occurrence and distribution

·        Classification and chemistry

·        Isolation and identification

·        Important Pharmacological activity and Therapeutic uses

·        Examples [:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

2- Volatile oil             

·        Introduction and definition, biogenesis

·        occurrence and distribution

·        Classification and chemistry

·        Important Pharmacological activity and Therapeutic uses

·        Isolation and identification Examples:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

3- Glycosides       

·        Introduction and definition, classification, biogenesis

·        occurrence and distribution

·        Classification and chemistry

·         Important Pharmacological activity and Therapeutic uses

·        Isolation and identification Examples:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

 4- Other topics       

5.4.3.2. Practical

1-      Qualitative determination  of different Phytochemical groups studied.

2-      Quantitative determination of different Phytochemical groups studied.

3-      Determination of secondary  metabolites (terpenoids, and glycosides) from their natural sources.

 

5.5.Phytochemistry IV                  

Course Code: -----            Semester VII & VIII

5.5.1.Aim :

       To  introduce the student to various aspects of extraction, isolation and identification of secondary metabolites.

5.5.2. Objectives :

       By the end of this course, the students will understand :

1.     The extraction methods of different phytochemical groups

2.     The physiochemical properties of secondary metabolites

3.     The isolation and identification of secondary metabolites.

4.     The therapeutic activities of the secondary metabolites.

5.5.3. Course contents:

5.5.3.1. Thyory

1- Alkaloids          

·        Introduction and definition, and Biogenesis

·        occurrence and distribution

·        Classification and chemistry

·        Isolation and identification

·        Important Pharmacological activity and Therapeutic uses

·        Examples [:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

2- Poisonous plants

·        Important Pharmacological activity and Therapeutic uses

·        Examples [:[biological source, macroscopic and microscopic feature,  description, cultivation, chemical constituents, mechanism of action, therapeutic activity, substitute and adulterate].

3- Quality control and standardization of natural drugs 

Quality control of crude drugs: Adulteration of crude drugs and their detection by organoleptic, microscopic, physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.

 4- Other topics     

5.5.3.2. Practical

1-      Qualitative determination  of different Phytochemical groups studied.

2-      Quantitative determination of different Phytochemical groups studied.

3-      Determination of secondary  metabolites (alkaloids) from their natural sources.

4-         Standardization of some traditional drug formulations.

  5.6.Phytotherapy                

Course Code: -----                                                       Semester IX & X

5.6.1. Aim :

 To prepare the students for the phytotherapy and its importance  and natural product chemistry course     

5.6.2. Ojectives :

       By the end of this course, the students will understand the therapeutic effect of natural drugs

5.6.3.course contents:

5.6.3.1. Theory

1- Medicinal plants in selected health care system      week(s) 1 - 2

·        Traditional system of herbal medicine

·        Complementary alternative medicine

2- Studies  of  traditional  drugs,  common  vernacular  names,  botanical  sources, morphology, chemical nature of chief constituents, pharmacology, categories and common uses and marketed formulations of indigenous drugs:

3- The holistic concept of drug administration in traditional systems of medicine.

4- Introduction to ayurvedic preparations

5- The important natural products and phytomedicines used in pharmacy and medicine:

·        The gastrointestinal and biliary system

·        The cardiovascular system

·        The respiratory system

·        The acns

·        The endocrine system

·        Infectious disease

·        The reproductive system and urinary tract

·        The skin

·        The eye     

·        Mescellaneous supportive and protective therapy for[ strees, cancer, Others]

1-    Other topics

 

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الاسم : محمود مضوى الطاهر مضوى
الدراسات العليا
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جميع الحقوق محفوظة لمركز تقانة المعلومات والإتصالات - 2013